Editorials

Antimicrobial resistance

BMJ 1998; 317 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.317.7159.609 (Published 05 September 1998) Cite this as: BMJ 1998;317:609

Re: Antimicrobial resistance

Dear Editors,

Essential oil of Origanum vulgaris(oregano), containing high quantities of carvacrol, exhibits broad spectrum bactericidal activity, even against antibiotic-resistant strains. [10][22][27][39]

Oregano oil was demonstrated extremely bactericidal against Shigella[1], Escherichia coli O157:H7 [1][2][4][8][13][14][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][24][25][26][27][31][33][35][38][41], Listeria monocytogenes[2][8][11][12][13][14][15][17][20][24][25][38][41], Campylobacter jejuni[3][24], Helicobacter pylori[34], Pseudomonas aeruginosa[7][10][12][13][14][17][25][29][31][35][36], Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus kristinae, Micrococcus lylae, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus flavus, Micrococcus varians, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus pumilus, Paenibacillus macerans[9][27], Bacillus subtilis[9][29][31], Bacillus cereus[9][14][17][22], Yersinia enterocolitica[15][17][25][27], Enterococcus faecalis[17], Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens[23], Morganella morganii[27][39], Proteus vulgaris[27][35], Proteus mirabilis[31][39], Staphylococcus epidermidis[30][31], Staphylococcus aureus (even MRSA clinic isolates)[2][4][5][7][9][13][17][20][22][25][27][30][31][38][41], Enterobacter cloacae[31][35], Borrelia burgdorferi[32], Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens[35][39], Mycoplasma hominis[44], Mycobacterium tuberculosis[37], Salmonella enterica (even Salmonella Typhimurium serovar) [1][2][4][8][13][17][18][20][21][24][31][35][38][41].

Oregano essential oil is bactericidal even when applied externally. [42][43]

Furthermore, oregano oil has acaricidal[45], insecticidal[46][47], herbicidal[47], antimalarial[48], anti-vibrionic[6] and anti-protozoan properties[40].

Further research on this amazing natural substance is needed, in order to cope with increasing rates of antibiotic resistance and improve therapeutic outcomes.

References

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23324049
[2] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23317422
[3] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23049787
[4] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22064737
[5] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21968667
[6] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20638331
[7] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19921329
[8] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19895486
[9] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19783523
[10] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19716146
[11] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19610331
[12] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19171255
[13] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18810868
[14] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378032
[15] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18044446
[16] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17526792
[17] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17488023
[18] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17066914
[19] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16919909
[20] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15612826
[21] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15366861
[22] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15330549
[23] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14717375
[24] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12380738
[25] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11456186
[26] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10736000
[27] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20835958
[28] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22291749
[29] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22164795
[30] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903378
[31] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21030907
[32] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432627
[33] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20153068
[34] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19769000
[35] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19471191
[36] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17897196
[37] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19753839
[38] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23317422
[39] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22827568
[40] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22309702
[41] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21314366
[42] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21130859
[43] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514796
[44] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23128812
[45] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21845941

[46] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20578885

[47] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18513954

[48] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21535822

Competing interests: No competing interests

06 March 2013
Stavros Saripanidis
Consultant in Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Private Surgery
Thessaloniki, Greece
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