Research Article

Trial of glucose versus fat emulsion in preparation of amphotericin for use in HIV infected patients with candidiasis.

BMJ 1992; 305 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.305.6859.921 (Published 17 October 1992) Cite this as: BMJ 1992;305:921
  1. P. Y. Chavanet,
  2. I. Garry,
  3. N. Charlier,
  4. D. Caillot,
  5. J. P. Kisterman,
  6. M. D'Athis,
  7. H. Portier
  1. Service des Maladies Infectieuses, Hopital du Bocage, Dijon, France.

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the tolerance, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin deoxycholate (Fungizone) prepared in a parenteral fat emulsion (Intralipid 20%) or glucose in HIV patients with candidiasis. DESIGN--Non-blind randomised controlled trial. SETTING--University hospital; tertiary clinical care. PATIENTS--22 HIV positive patients with oral candidiasis. INTERVENTIONS--Amphotericin 1 mg/kg/day given on four consecutive days as a one hour infusion dissolved in either 5% glucose (amphotericin-glucose) or parenteral fat emulsion at a final concentration of 2 g/l fat emulsion (amphotericin-fat emulsion). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Clinical tolerance (fever, chills, sweats, nausea, arterial pressure, and pulse rate); biological tolerance (serum creatinine, electrolyte, and magnesium values); clinical score of candidiasis; and serum concentrations of amphotericin. RESULTS--11 patients were enrolled in each group. All the amphotericin-fat emulsion infusions were given without serious problem whereas four amphotericin-glucose infusions were stopped because of renal impairment (n = 3) or severe chills (n = 2), or both. For patients completing the amphotericin-glucose treatment creatine concentration increased by 42 mumol/l; four of seven patients had at least one creatinine value > or = 133 mumol/l versus one of 11 receiving amphotericin-fat emulsion. Magnesium concentration fell significantly with amphotericin-glucose but not with amphotericin-fat emulsion. Clinical side effects were noted in 36/38 infusions with amphotericin-glucose but 10/44 with amphotericin-fat emulsion. Oral candidiasis score was reduced similarly in both groups. Serum amphotericin concentrations were significantly lower and the volume of distribution of the drug higher after infusion of amphotericin-fat emulsion than after amphotericin-glucose. CONCLUSIONS--Clinical and renal toxicity of amphotericin are reduced when the drug is prepared in fat emulsion. Preparation is simple and cost effective. Its efficacy is similar to that of conventional amphotericin.