Research Article

Plasma lipid and coagulation factor concentrations in insulin dependent diabetics with microalbuminuria.

BMJ 1989; 298 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.298.6672.487 (Published 25 February 1989) Cite this as: BMJ 1989;298:487
  1. S. L. Jones,
  2. C. F. Close,
  3. M. B. Mattock,
  4. R. J. Jarrett,
  5. H. Keen,
  6. G. C. Viberti
  1. Unit for Metabolic Medicine, United Medical School, Guy's Hospital, London.

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether insulin dependent diabetics with microalbuminuria have significant abnormalities in concentrations of lipoproteins, apolipoproteins AI and B, fibrinogen, and clotting factor VII which could result in increased cardiovascular risk. DESIGN--Case-control study. SETTING--Outpatient department of a metabolic ward. PATIENTS--Group of 20 insulin dependent diabetics with urinary albumin excretion rates greater than 30 micrograms/min (microalbuminuria) and 20 individually matched insulin dependent diabetics with normal urinary albumin excretion rates (below 30 micrograms/min) matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes. INTERVENTIONS--Fasting venous blood samples were taken for determination of concentrations of glucose, glycated haemoglobin, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins AI and B, fibrinogen, and factor VII. Height, weight, arterial pressure, and usual insulin dose were recorded, and each patient was given a dietary questionnaire to be completed at home. END POINT--Comparison of blood pressure and concentrations of lipoproteins, apolipoproteins AI and B, and fibrinogen in the diabetics with microalbuminuria and the controls. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Patients with microalbuminuria had significantly higher concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean 3.33 (SE 0.20) v 2.84 (0.12) mmol/l) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.30 (0.05) v 0.17 (0.03) mmol/l) than controls but significantly lower concentrations of high density lipoprotein 2 subfraction cholesterol (0.32 (0.04) v 0.54 (0.04) mmol/l). Concentrations of total triglyceride (1.11 (0.14) v 0.68 (0.08) mmol/l), very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (0.56 (0.10) v 0.30 (0.05) mmol/l), apolipoprotein B (0.88 (0.06) v 0.67 (0.03) g/l) and fibrinogen (2.2 (0.1) v 1.9 (0.1) g/l), and diastolic arterial pressure (80 (2) v 74 (2) mm Hg), were also higher in patients with microalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS--Cardiovascular risk factors--namely, disturbances in lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations, increased fibrinogen concentration, and increased arterial pressure--are already present in insulin dependent diabetics with microalbuminuria. The increased risk of coronary heart disease in patients with clinical proteinuria may result from prolonged exposure to these risk factors, which are present before any impairment of renal function.