- David B. Barnett,
- Anthony A. Greenfield,
- Peter J. Howlett,
- Jennifer C. Hudson,
- Robert N. Smith
Different thyroid function tests permitted a final classification of 204 consecutive patients with suspected thyroid disorders into three populations (thyrotoxic, euthyroid, and hypothyroid). Linear discriminant analysis was applied to all test results (10 variates) on adjacent population pairs. Two invitro tests (serum protein bound iodine (P.B.I.) and tri-iodothyronine (T-3) uptake values) gave good separation of thyrotoxic from euthyroid patients and fairly good distinction of hypothyroid patients. If a 131I uptake figure was then added to the in-vitro results most patients (95·5%), including thse initially classified as equivocal, were correctly diagnosed. Other tests, including clinical questionnaires, were poor discriminants.
Two new techniques of utilizing the test data were devised. Firstly, the data from the two in-vitro tests were also displayed graphically, and oblique boundary lines derived from the discriminant functions gave better separation of patients than previously used limits or mathematical expressions of “free thyroxine.” Secondly, a nomogram incorporating the best four discriminants was designed as a diagnostic aid and proved to be the best means of interpreting the tests.
Discriminant analysis of this kind can be used in the interpretation of diagnostic tests in any branch of medicine, and it allows the best use to be made of the available data.