Malformations of Central Nervous System and Softness of Local Water SuppliesBr Med J 1971; 2 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5758.357 (Published 15 May 1971) Cite this as: Br Med J 1971;2:357
- C. R. Lowe,
- C. J. Roberts,
- S. Lloyd
The mean annual prevalence at birth of congenital malformations of the central nervous system for the three years 1964-6 in 48 local authority areas in South Wales was negatively correlated (r = -0·402, P<0·01) with estimates of the mean total hardness of the related water supplies.
The mean annual perinatal mortality rate from anencephalus for the five years 1963-7 in 58 county boroughs in England and Wales was also negatively correlated with estimates of the mean total hardness (r = -0·220, P>0·05) and calcium content (r = -0·289, P<0·05) of the related water supplies.
It is concluded that the relationship between these associations may well be secondary. Analytical epidemiological studies of the association are called for.