Papers And Originals

Observations on the Epidemiology of Simple Hypospadias

Br Med J 1973; 1 doi: (Published 31 March 1973) Cite this as: Br Med J 1973;1:768
  1. C. J. Roberts,
  2. S. Lloyd


    A descriptive epidemiological study of simple hypospadias—that is, hypospadias without coexisting malformation outside the genital system—in a birth population of 46,927 singleton males and 1,013 twin males showed that the condition was significantly more common (P < 0·001) in uniovular twin males than in either singleton or binovular twin males. Also the temporal distribution of dates of conception had a significant cyclic pattern for each year of the study. Both observations are thought to support the view that gonadotrophin levels at stage 3 sexual organogenesis play an important part in normal masculinization of male external genitalia.